The scallop is a mollusc parented with oysters and clams. It lives in clear, firm, sandy beaches near the profound waters of the coasts in waters of 100 m. in depth.
It is a hermaphrodite whereby the male creature always matures before.
Its valve is oval shaped and its inferior body is larger than its superior half which is almost flat. Its undulating shape radiates from the crown of each valve, picking up its shape like a fan-shaped object. Its borders are sharp and oval.
The valve opens up and closes up in one sole move when faced with its abductor. They do not range more than 15 cm. and take four years to reach their commercial size of (80 mm.).
It feeds from phytoplankton and organic particles. Seldom do we see them on rocks. They swim in open-closed jerks or lie within its inferior inner valve.
The scallop is a marine bivalve mollusc of the family Pectinidae found in all of the world’s oceans. Scallops are hermaphroditic, enabling them to switch sexes. Both sexes produce roe, the red being female and the white male. The abductor muscle of scallops is larger and more developed than that of oysters, because they are active swimmers. A free-living scallop can swim, by rapidly opening and closing its shell. Scallops are in fact the only migratory bivalve. The biggest specimens do not exceed 15cm and it takes 4 years to reach 80mm. They feed on Phytoplankton and very rarely attach themselves to rocks.
Baby Sole (Dab)
It differs from the Sole in that its dorsal (back) begins just before the eye rim.
Its colour is dark grey with great dark marks and small lighter ones.
In the middle of its pectoral it carries a round black mark.
It lives in sandy, clayey seas between 30 to 200 m in depth. It feeds on worms and molluscs, and baby fish.
Length: 20-35 cm.
Weight: 0.5-1.5 Kg.
rnD: 67-76; a: 53-65; P: 7-10.
The Anglerfish is the commonest of names amongst the 265 paired fish with a similarity supplement of a fishing rod with which it attracts its counterpart.
The common Anglerfish lies on the European and Northern American coasts till reaching Barbados.
These fish reach a length of up to 1,5 m and live in profoundest oceans whilst flowing around with its pectoral fins in search of food. With its enormous mouth and extensible stomach, this creature can capture another fish of its same size.
Other kinds of Anglerfish are the “Bat fish”, “Sea frogs” and “Sea toads”.
Their peculiar aspect is their sexual involvement. In many species, the male Anglerfish is 10 times much smaller than the female and does not have the decoy/lure characteristic.
The male parasite adapts to its female counterpart and penetrates profoundly. The circulatory vessels unite and the blood nutrients of the female feeds the male Anglerfish. These fish are the only kind which present such sexual dimorphism.
Hake live in both sides of the Atlantic, Mediterranean and Pacific oceans, facing the U.S., Mexico, Chile and New Zealand.
Its head is equally big as its mouth which contains sharp teeth and its body is long and is covered by small scales. The first dorsal fin is much shorter than the second. Its unique anal fin is elongated and carved possessing a fine long black line across its body.
It can grow to reach 1,5 metres in length and weigh 15 Kg. It lives in profound seas and on the coastal cliffs in areas varying between 30 to 500 metres in depth.
During the summer months, the babies reach the coasts and then in winter they disappear into profounder levels to inhabit.
Throughout the day, they remain near the bottom of the sea and at night-time reappear in search of food.
Its form of nurturing is through plankton, cephalopods, crustaceans and baby fish.
Smaller species have been considered to have cannibal instinct. Its reproduction occurs towards the end of winter and beginning of spring.
Hake is considered in Europe as a sculptured type of fish, reaching up to 1,8 metres in length, and rarely overpasses 100 centimetres. The captures in Europe outweigh the 130.000 tonnes per year, of which more than half the amount belong to Spain.
Most captures correspond to similar species such as:- small hake and whiting.
Hake is very interestingly captured in the North of Peru right though to Chile.
The Chilean Hake has an elongated body, a flat head and grandiose eye sockets.
Its colour is silvery grey, darker on the back and has silvery white shades in its front. It possesses two dorsal fins and a long dorsal fin which extends to the top of the anal fin.
It lives in continental waters between 70 to 250 metres. During the day it will inhabit beyond and will reappear through mid waters at night.
Between November and January it carries out its migration heading South bordering the coast, however its prime time lies between the months of January through to April and between August and November.
Turbot is an aquamarine which lives in shallow waters and is rarely seen below 150 m. It rests in sandy ground or in shells. It is flat, nearly circular in shape with a scaly body presenting numerous tuber sections.
Its colour is of dark grey streaks which changes shade depending on the surroundings. It can grow up to 100 cm. long and gain a weight no more than 15 Kg.
It’s a daytime predator and once grown into an adult feeds itself exclusively from baby fish.
Its reproductive era commences from the ages of 4-5 during the spring months, whereby, they roam around mature kinds of fish to spawn in depths of 10-40 m. A female is able to lay up to 500.000 eggs per Kg. in weight.
Calamari is a cephalopod which possesses a large head, and a husky bodily shape. Its body is strengthened by an internal cartilage skeleton; it is sphere and has two side fins.
You will find eight tentacles around its mouth and two contractiles with expanded flat extremes. In the latter there are four rows of air-holes surrounded by the corneas. The contractile tentacles which are larger than the rest are prehensile and serve for capturing its prey and directing them to the smaller tentacles, which trap the prey with powerful jaws.
Calamari can swim fast ejecting water from its cavity layer through muscular funnels, a tubular formation of the foot which allows for manoeuvres of direction always controlled with the eyes.
The different kinds of calamari vary in shape. The most common from the oriental coasts of the North Atlantic range from 30 - 45 cm long, and the gigantic calamari which measures at least 18 m in length is the greatest of aquatic invertebrates. It lives in waters of 300 to 600 m deep, and is prey for the sperm whale.
We have heard about 60 species of this edible family. Codfish live in cold or even warm northern waters, in 180 - 600 m profundity, and they like to endeavour in long migration. Many live near the bottom of the sea.
It has three dorsal fins, two anal, a non-forked tail and a small barbel in the inferior jaw. On the whole it is of a normal size, but can grow to weigh up to 90 kg. and measure 1,8 m in length. Its colour is greyish green or darkish brown, occasionally we come across some which are red coloured and have streaky designs on the head surface, the back and on the sides. It is a voracious predator and feeds on herring, baby eels and other.
They reunite largely at winter time, whereby the female lays 4 to 7 million eggs. Some eggs of this specie contain a drop of oil, allowing it to float and therefore, the codfish in times of larva move onto form part of the plankton during ten weeks. Once they become 2 cm long, they sink to the bottom of the sea. During the second year they begin to migrate and within five years they begin the reproduction process.
Codfish is highly appreciated for its meaty texture and its cod liver oil nutrients.
Other important commercialised species include Pollock; Pacific codfish, highly appreciated by the Japanese and also, Haddock. The latter in particular, has been over exploited by the meshes of factory boats.
It is of a great size with spiny fins and lives in tropical and sub-tropical Waters of between 200 - 800 m. in depth during the day and arises to the surface at night. In summer it nears the coastal waters in search of Shoals.
It is known as The Emperor fish (The Swordfish), weighing an average of 110 Kg. Species of this kind have been captured weighing at most 500 Kg.m; hence 6 metres in length, maximum. It has a large dorsal fin and lacks in pelvic fins.
It is characteristic in that the fusion and prolongation of the top jaw bones form a rigid peak similar to that of a sword which, in actual fact and, in great part represents a third part of its full body length.
It is aggressive and voracious. It feeds on large molluscs and other fish.
It follows the Banks of garfish, Mackerel alike and is greedy for cephalopods.
They are captured in meshes, on the surface with fishing lines with multiple hooks.
Its meat is edible and very nutritive.
Sole is very common and belongs to the tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Just like other flat fish, the Sole is oval in shape, flattened on its sides and has perforated teeth with protractile lips.
It reproduces between May and August and the freed larva does not remain flat. They move and look like other fish and so, swim vertically just like the rest.
After a number of weeks, the eyes tend to move to one side of the body, again, flattening out. This fish remains at the bottom of the sea from that moment on and swims around with the surface of its flat stomach, adopting a horizontal characteristic.
Due to this factor, its left eye which reflects the position where it lies always, in contact with the bottom of the sea, migrates towards the right hand side of its head in the first few phases of its development. In this way, the small teeth slide over to the blind side position.
The top half of the body takes on a more dark sandy colour, to camouflage with the bottom of the sea, whilst the other already positioned at the bottom of the sea and resting on its left hand side, appears to be white and is left to spend the rest of its adulthood in the midst of the oceans in that same position, thus covered with sand and fungi to escape from predators. Sometimes to such an extent, that it fully buries itself in times of danger.
Hunter by nature, it feeds on small fish, crustaceans and invertebrates. One of its qualities most renown is the camouflage process it acquires when spying its victims.
It survives in warm tropical waters and is widely sought for in the East coast of the Pacific, the tropical Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Even so, in Australia.
Family of the Tuna, Mackerel, its bodily shape is of a hydro-dynamic equal and of a shiny blue colour with minute scales and two dorsal fins. The dorsal fin and the anal fin are followed by many baby fins. It can weigh up to 10 Kg. and reach a length of up to 1 m.
They move in large banks and need to swim continuously due to the fact that they do not inherit a bladder. The most common species are the Atlantic Bonito adn the Striped Bonito. Other species are the Tuna, “Albacora” and “Bacoreta.
The Tuna (Thunnus Thynnus), commonly known as Red Tuna, belongs to the “Escombridos family”. It is wise to differentiate it from the well known White Tuna Fish or Bonito from the North (Thunnus Thynnus) also known in other regions as “Albacora”. Within this family we reunite other species such as Mackerel and Bonito.
This fish kind lives in large banks and indeed, provides for an important source of human nutrition.